Papers and Articles

Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries

Lead Author: Amber Peterman
22 April 2017

A recently published a review article, Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries in Health Policy Plan 2017 is based on a background paper prepared for Know Violence in Childhood by authors based at the UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, in Florence, Italy.
Household- and community-level poverty are among the risk factors for child protection violations including violence experienced by children. Social safety nets (SSNs) are a main policy tool to address poverty and vulnerability, and there is substantial evidence demonstrating positive effects on children’s health and human capital. This paper:

* Reviews evidence and develop a framework to understand linkages between SSNs and childhood emotional, physical and sexual violence in low- and middle-income countries.
* Catalogues 14 impact evaluations, 11 with completed results analysing 57 unique impacts on diverse violence indicators, among which approximately one in five represent statistically significant protective effects on childhood violence.
* Reviews promising evidence relates to sexual violence among female adolescents in Africa, while there is less clear evidence of significant impacts for in other parts of the developing world, and on young child measures, including violent discipline.

The paper concludes that linkages between social protection and violence prevention are not well understood. However, social safety nets may reduce violence risk at the margins and integrated systems and programming hold promise to maximize violence prevention.

Read the full article here.
Amber Peterman, Anastasia (Naomi) Neijhoft, Sarah Cook, Tia M Palermo; Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Health Policy Plan 2017 czx033. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czx033

Guest Editorial: Innocenti Research Digest| Adolescence – Issue 5| April 2017

Lead Author: Ramya Subrahmanian
05 April 2017

In this guest editorial of the latest quarterly digest by UNICEF’s Office of Research – Innocenti, Ramya Subrahmanian, Executive Director, Know Violence in Childhood acknowledges the unprecedented opportunity to address adolescents’ needs and aspirations, and underscores the importance of paying attention to the experience of violence during adolescence.

The editorial further highlights adolescence as a stage in which exposure to peer violence in schools increases. For girls, exposure to sexual violence dramatically increases; particularly in the context of early and forced marriage, but also with respect to dating violence. Sexual violence is also a reality for boys, though it is not often discussed or studied. National data on boys’ experiences of violence are largely unavailable. However, research with adult male perpetrators of violence often reveals childhood exposure to violence and abuse. Physical fighting and gang violence put large numbers of adolescent boys at risk, including risk of homicide. Vulnerability to forms of online violence – including cyber-bullying, harassment, sextortion and exploitation – amplify the offline risks; although the opportunities for personal learning and empowerment that the Internet provides typically outweigh such risks.

Read the full article here.
(2017). Innocenti Research Digest: Adolescence, Miscellanea no. 05, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence

Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections on violence against women and violence against children

Lead Author: Alessandra Guedes
21 July 2016

Alessandra Guedes and Manuela Colombini, commissioned authors for Learning Group 1 at Know Violence in Childhood, along with colleagues, Sarah Bott and Claudia Garcia-Moreno, have recently published a review article, Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections on violence against women and violence against children in Volume 9, June 2016 of Global Health Action.

This article presents a narrative review of evidence in intersections between Violence Against Children (VAC) and Violence Against Women (VAW) – including sexual violence by non-partners, with an emphasis on low- and middle-income countries. This global review identified evidence for six VAC/VAW intersections, viz.:

1) VAC and VAW have many shared risk factors.
2) Social norms often support VAW and VAC and discourage help-seeking.
3) Child maltreatment and partner violence often co-occur within the same household.
4) Both VAC and VAW can produce intergenerational effects.
5) Many forms of VAC and VAW have common and compounding consequences across the lifespan.
6) VAC and VAW intersect during adolescence, a time of heightened vulnerability to certain kinds of violence.

Read the full article here.
GUEDES, Alessandra et al. Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children. Global Health Action, [S.l.], v. 9, jun. 2016. ISSN 1654-9880. Date accessed: 18 Jul. 2016. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v9.31516.

Exposure to violence predicts poor educational outcomes in young children in South Africa and Malawi

Lead Author: Lorraine Sherr
17 December 2015

Professor Lorraine Sherr, Senior Advisor – Research at Know Violence in Childhood has co-authored a paper with Imca Hensels, Sarah Skeen, Mark Tomlinson, KJ Roberts and Ana Macedo, published in Volume 8, Issue 1, Pp. 36-43, January 2016 of International Health, an official journal of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The paper entitled, Exposure to violence predicts poor educational outcomes in young children in South Africa and Malawi, recognises the lack of availability of literature on younger children from resource poor settings. The study assessed child violence experiences (harsh punishment and exposure to domestic or community violence) and school enrolment, progress and attendance in children attending community-based organisations in South Africa and Malawi. At 15 months' follow-up, it examined differential experience of HIV positive, HIV affected and HIV unaffected children.

Read the full paper here.
L. Sherr, I. S. Hensels, S. Skeen, M. Tomlinson, K. J. Roberts, A. Macedo; Exposure to violence predicts poor educational outcomes in young children in South Africa and Malawi. Int Health 2016; 8 (1): 36-43. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihv070

We encourage the use and dissemination of our publications and those of others reproduced here (with permission), for non-commercial and educational purposes. Portions may be reproduced with acknowledgment to respective authors/lead authors. For questions, please contact smukherjee@knowviolenceinchildhood.org.

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